Herds of megafauna, such as mammoth and bison, have roamed the prehistoric plains in what is today's Central Europe for several tens of thousands of years. As woodland expanded at the end of the last Ice Age, the numbers of these animals declined and by roughly 11,000 years ago, they had completely vanished from this region. Thus, the growth of forests was the main factor that determined the extinction of such megafauna in Central Europe.
The megafauna fecal fungal spores show that it was these environments which were continuously inhabited by large mammals from 48,000 to some 11,000 years ago. Datable bones found in caves in Belgium and gravel deposits in the Rhine valley document that mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, bison, horses, reindeer, and giant deer found the cold phases more accommodating. The sparse forests of the warmer phases were the preferred habitat of red deer, elk, and the European bison.
The primary cause of the decline and eventual extinction of large mammals in Central Europe was the growth of forests. \"As the trees began to take over, the large herbivores lost access to their main staple food, namely grass,\" explained Sirocko. Neither the extreme climatic fluctuations of the last 60,000 years nor local volcanic activity and associated fire events appear to have played a role in their extinction. At the same time, the arrival of modern humans in Central Europe 43,000 years ago also had little effect on the presence of local megafauna. Instead, times at which extensive numbers of large mammals were living here coincided with periods in which there was a denser population of humans. \"This is most apparent some 15,000 years ago. At that time, we find the largest herds of megafauna along with the archaeologically confirmed presence of human hunters in the Rhine valley,\" Sirocko pointed out. The Magdalenian culture site at Gönnersdorf in northern Rhineland-Palatinate has been extensively excavated by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz -- Leibniz Research Institute for Archaeology (RGZM) in Mainz.
According to the research team, the fact that hunters and megafauna occupied the same region concurrently demonstrates that human beings did not cause the disappearance of large mammals from Central Europe -- in other words, the maar sediments of the Eifel region do not furnish proof that the overkill hypothesis put forward for North America can be corroborated here. The large mammals migrated away only when birch forests began to predominate in the terrain 13,300 years ago. From 11,000 years ago there is no longer evidence of the presence of large herds of megafauna as thick woods had taken over the Eifel, a setting in which large mammals could not survive.
This time the Gears begin in the northeastern region of North America known now as New York and Ontario, where nine years earlier an important child was born. His name is Rumbler, though the Elders call him Manitou Child, the name the prophets gave him when they foretold the birth of this one of power. As he nears maturity, many greedy warriors covet the young boy as a weapon to use against their enemies. But none are as ruthless as War Leader Jumping Badger, who murders the boy`s mother and burns their village to the ground.Stealing the power child was bloody, but easy enough. Holding onto him is proving to be more than Jumping Badger and his whole village can handle. His warriors are dying one at a time, and it is not long before Rumbler escapes into the frozen forests with the help of 12-year-old Wren, a village girl who has befriended him.A desperate race begins as Jumping Badger pursues the children across the winter landscape of New York and Ontario. He fears the boy`s power now and seeks only to kill him. The pair`s only hope is to stay alive long enough to find Rumbler`s legendary father, known only as The Disowned.
Primelephas gomphotheroidesPrimelephas means first elephant, and is thought to be the ancestor of all elephants, and split up into three lineages, Loxodonta, Elephas, and Mammuthus. The animal lived 5 million years ago in dense forests in Africa. It had tusks in both the upper and the lower jaw, it had an increased number of molar ridges, capable of grinding up rough vegetation, and had a longer trunk than Gomphoterium, an elephant like animal with fossil examples dating to 25 Million years ago. Text: Adapted from www.elephant.se/primelephas.phpopen=Extinct%20Proboscidea Photo: Vladimir Gorodnjanski, 2007
Phanagoroloxodon mammontoidesIt is possible that the forests were occupied by Phanagoroloxodon mammonthoides Garutt (Garutt 1957) on the territory of the Sea of Azov at the end of Pliocene and at the beginning of the Pleistocene. Text: www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/152_156.pdfPhoto: Vladimir Gorodnjanski, 2007
Photo: From: NTV, Russian Television Channel -- AP PhotoThe frozen carcass of a 10 000-year-old baby mammoth has been unearthed in a remote northern Siberian region, a discovery scientists said Wednesday could help in climate change studies.The 1.2-metre grey-and-brown carcass, discovered in May by a reindeer herder near the Yuribei River in the Yamal-Nenets region, has its trunk and eyes virtually intact and even some fur remaining, said Alexei Tikhonov, deputy director of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Zoological Institute.The animal's tail and ear appeared to have been bitten off, he said.\"The mammoth is an animal that you look at and you see that there is an entire epoch behind it, a huge time period when climate was changing,\" he said in comments broadcast Friday.\"And of course when we talk about climate change, we must use the knowledge that we will get from them (mammoths).\"Scientists believe mammoths lived from 4.8 million years ago to around 4 000 years ago. Studies suggest climate change or overkill by human hunters as possible reasons leading to their extinction.Tikhonov said the mammoth would be sent to an institute in Japan for further study.Global warming has made it easier for woolly mammoth hunters to hack the animal out of Russia's thawing permafrost. An entire mammoth industry has sprung up around the far eastern frontier town of Yakutsk. Many examples are simply sold on the black market - and can be seen in Russian souvenir shops, next to unhappy-looking stuffed brown bears.
Photo: \"The animal died and immediately was buried in a watery area or a bog. There was no decay. She was located there in a frozen state for several thousand years,\" said Kosintsev. Lyuba likely reappeared to the world after the river's bank slipped at the end of last year, he said.
Mary Lou McGinness Mackey was born in 1945 in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, where she raised. She is related through her father's family to Mark Twain. She graduated magna cum laude from Harvard and received her Ph.D. in Comparative Literature from the University of Michigan. During the early 1970s she lived in the rain forests of Costa Rica. From 1989 to 1992 she served of Chair of PEN American Center, West. Currently, she is a professor of English and Writer in Residence at California State University, Sacramento.Mary Mackey published novels and books of poetry and have sold over a million and a half copies. They have been translated into eleven foreign languages including Japanese, Hebrew, and Finnish. While her poetry has mainly centered around the traditional lyric themes of love, death, and nature, her novels have ranged from the Midwestern United States to Neolithic Europe, from comedy to tragedy. A screenwriter as well as a novelist, she has sold feature scripts to Warner Brothers as well as to various independent film companies. John Korty directed the filming of her original screenplay Silence which starred the late Will Geer and which won several awards. She has lectured at many places including Harvard and the Smithsonian. Additionally, she has contributed to such diverse print and on-line publications as The Chiron Review, Redbook, and Salon. She also writes comedy under the pen name \"Kate Clemens\".
Management of pine forests in the southern United States has intensified as timber resource value has increased and the need for sustained production has become evident. Recent increased demands for wood products, widening price differentials between pulpwood and sawtimber, and greater utilization of both small material and a larger number of tree species have increased the attractiveness of forestry investments.
Timely thinning of pine forests promotes tree growth and vigor and is often recommended to reduce the risk of an SPB infestation (Fettig et al. 2007). An analysis of existing pine beetle infestations of loblolly pine plantations across the southeastern U.S. found that the occurrence of pine beetle attacks was greater in stands of high density (Zhang and Zeide 1999). Since SPB infestations are more likely to occur where stand density is greater, the importance of timely thinning is apparent.
The ability of trees to resist insects or diseases is reduced if trees are stressed. Maintaining forest health and vigor through thinning when stands become too dense can prevent overly stressed forests. There is wide agreement that susceptibility to SPB infestation and the occurrence and proliferation of SPB attacks are positively correlated with increased stand density (Brown et al. 1987, Burkhart et al. 1986, Cameron and Billings 1988, Hedden and Billings 1979, Nebeker and Hodges 1983). Clearly, reducing stand density by thinning when necessary can greatly reduce the risk of timber loss due to insects and diseases.
Thinning can influence forest values besides timber. In southern forests, the nontimber values most often affected by thinning include wildlife habitat, recreation, aesthetics, grazing, and water quality and quantity. These values are generally improved through the thinning of dense stands. 59ce067264